Author Archives: Micol Long

Masterclass “Pieter Bruegel the Elder and his Predecessors: Culture and Visual Arts in the Late 15th and 16th Centuries” (Brussels, 25 januari 2019)

Masterclass Poster

Pieter Bruegel the Elder and his Predecessors: Culture and Visual Arts in the Late 15th and 16th Centuries

Masterclass with Reindert FALKENBURG (NYU, Abu Dhabi) & Michel WEEMANS (ENSA, Bourges)
25 January 2019
Brussels, KU Leuven Campus Brussel
Van Genechtenzaal

Programme

09.30 Introduction
09.40 Jamie EDWARDS (University of Birmingham), Bruegel the Elder’s Scripture Reanimated? Bruegel the Elder’s 1566 Census at Bethlehem.
10.20 Lisa KONING (University of Winchester), Ekphrastic Inspiration for a Writer: Bruegel’s Depictions of Life during the 16th Century.
11.00 Coffee break
11.20 Pachomius MEADE (University of Missouri), Sacred and Sinister Touch in Netherlandish Epiphany Altarpieces.
1480-1580.
12.00 Wendy WAUTERS (KULeuven), De beroering van de religieuze ruimte – Een iconologische studie van ornamenta sacra in de Antwerpse OLV-kathedraal.
12.40 Lunch
14.00 Gaylen VANKAN (ULiège), Circulation et usages de l’image dans les anciens Pays-Bas au XVIe siècle. Réflexions autour de Jan Swart van Groningen.
14.40 Daan VAN HEESCH (KULeuven), Bruegel across Modes and Materials. Thoughts on a Painted Palace in Sixteenth-Century Segovia.
15.20 Coffee break
15.40 Maarten BASSENS (KBR/KULeuven), A Matter of Letters. A Re-examination of Bruegel’s Print Editions from a Typographical Point of View.
16.20 Ruben SUYKERBUYK (UGent), Visual Discourses on Idolatry in the Low Countries (c. 1520-1585).
17.00 Final remarks

People interested to attend can register by emailing to ingrid.falque@uclouvain.be or micol.long@ugent.be

Organization

Réseau des Médiévistes Belges de Langue Française
Vlaamse Werkgroep Medievistiek

The flyer can be downloaded here.

Lezing “Bruegel: onderwerp van speculatie en valkuilen van zien” (Brussels, 24 januari, 18 uur)

Poster_Keynote_Brueghel

De landschapskunst van Bruegel neemt haar toeschouwer mee op een visuele en mentale zoektocht naar de zichtbare wereld, die leidt naar het rijk van het onzichtbare. De lezing zal dit fundamentele kenmerk van Bruegels kunst benadrukken. De werken van Bruegel, zoals gesuggereerd wordt door Reindert Falkenburg en Michel Weemans, zijn opgevat als een oefening van het kijken: ze zijn het onderwerp van speculatie en valkuilen van zien. Lezing in het Engels, met simultane vertaling naar het Frans.

Reindert Falkenburg (New York University Abu Dhabi) en Michel Weemans (École nationale supérieure d’art, Bourges) analyseren de visuele processen die Bruegel aanwendt om onze
manier van kijken uit te dagen en te verstoren.

Op initiatief van burgemeester Éric Tomas en het schepencollege van Anderlecht in samenwerking met: le Réseau des médiévistes belges de langue française, Vlaamse Werkgroep Medievistiek & het Masereelfonds

Maison d’Érasme – Erasmushuis
Rue de Formanoir 31 de Formanoirstraat, Bruxelles 1070 Brussels

Toegang gratis mits plaatsbespreking. Inschrijving online: www.erasmushouse.museum
info@erasmushouse.museum – 02.521.13.83

De brochure  kan hier gedownload worden: Invitation_Bruegel_24.01.2019

Les manuscrits hagiographiques du nord de la France et de la Belgique actuelle à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIVe-XVIe s.) : fabrication, fonctions et usages (21-22 mars 2019, Namur/Louvain)

À la fin du Moyen Âge, la production hagiographique manuscrite se transforme et connaît son dernier âge d’or entre le succès éditorial de la Légende dorée et l’arrivée de l’imprimerie. De nombreux textes anciens sont abrégés pour intégrer de nouvelles collections. Ce phénomène est en partie responsable du relatif désintérêt des historiens à leur égard : à quoi bon s’intéresser à ces abrégés alors qu’il reste tant à découvrir dans les grands légendiers du Moyen Âge central, et qu’on commence à peine à mieux connaître les tout premiers manuscrits conservés ?
L’objectif de ce colloque en deux temps (Lille, 30 novembre 2018 et Namur/Louvain, 21-22 mars 2019) est de mieux saisir la place du manuscrit hagiographique, entendu ici au sens large, dans le nord de la France et l’espace belge à la fin du Moyen Âge, en prolongeant notamment
les réflexions de Guy Philippart sur la fabrique et les usages des légendiers, à une période où la documentation susceptible de les appréhender est plus abondante.
L’objectif est aussi de saisir ensemble les légendiers latins et vernaculaires, en moyen néerlandais comme dans les parlers d’oïl. La journée lilloise est exclusivement consacrée aux manuscrits hagiographiques en langue vernaculaire du nord de la France, en partie exhumés jadis par Paul Meyer. La situation linguistique du nord de la France et de la Belgique induit
nécessairement un travail collaboratif, seul à même de faire réfléchir collectivement à la circulation des modèles et des traductions, aux conditions matérielles de la circulation des textes hagiographiques, mais aussi à l’usage de ces manuscrits, dans le cadre de la pastorale et des pratiques cultuelles collectives comme dans celui de l’affirmation de l’individu à la fin du Moyen Âge.

Comité scientifique
Paul Bertrand (Université de Louvain)
Esther Dehoux (Université de Lille)
Jeroen Deploige (Université de Gand)
Monique Goullet (Paris)
Xavier Hermand (Université de Namur)
Anne-Françoise Labie-Leurquin (Paris)
Charles Mériaux (Université de Lille)
Fernand Peloux (Université de Namur)
Piotr Tylus (Cracovie)
Catherine Vincent (Université de Paris Nanterre)

Contact : fernand.peloux@unamur.be

Voir le programme complet.

CfP “Moving Forms: The Transformations and Translocations of Medieval Literature” (Athens, 11-13 september 2019)

The movement of people and books across space and time – mobility and portability – were driving forces of medieval European literary and intellectual culture. Men and women, clerical and secular, constructed extensive social networks and communities through travel, written communication, and the exchange of texts. Shared literary practices and forms occurred at the regional and transregional levels, defining local identities and forging links between people separated by distance and time. Around the North Sea and Baltic littorals, legends from the Norse sagas, for instance, were taken up by writers. On a larger scale, people from north-western Europe to China exchanged stories of Barlaam and Josephat, while tales of Alexander are found from India to Ireland; in both cases, transmission was facilitated by the movement of people along the Silk Road. Rather than a full picture, often we are left with a set of trails, traces and clues that challenge us to create narratives out of the fragments.

This symposium aims to contribute to the understanding of medieval literature through the development of methodologies which examine the intersection of social networks and communities with literary forms. We welcome papers that attend to the agency of people (men and women), genres (literary, scientific, philosophical, legal etc.), modes (verse, poetry, prose), styles, texts and manuscripts (book types, layouts, images) in creating literary links across space and time. Building on the practices of both comparative literature and entangled history, the symposium will open up connections between literary cultures often considered to be separate. At the same time, and of equal importance, it will be alert to the absence of connections, to discontinuities, exposing the diversities and ruptures of medieval literature, as well as the commonalities.

By following the movement of forms and tracing social connections from Antiquity to the Renaissance, we will interrogate both geographies and chronologies of medieval European literature. Always keeping the intersection of the social and the formal in view, the symposium will move back and forth between small and large scales of time and place: the local, the transregional, the European, and the Afro-Eurasian. Issues of morphology, scale and periodization will be central to discussion, enabling conversations across a wide range of material to gain traction. The symposium will bring together methodological and theoretical contributions, addressing the intersection of people and forms; we welcome papers that work on large scale typological models as well as papers that address broader issues though closely-worked case studies.

Questions to consider include:

  • How do we move from specific examples to writing/formulating larger narratives, from the micro to the macro, from the close up to the panoramic, without falling into generalizations?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of existing methodologies that account for the movement of objects, texts and people through space (e.g. histoire croisée, actor network theory, global history, etc.)?
  • How does medieval Europe fit into a wider Afro-Eurasian space? How does Europe divide into and participate in regional geographies?
  • How conscious were medieval people of new forms as a dimension of cultural exchange?
  • What role does the modern historical imagination have to play in recreating social networks and formal encounters?
  • How do medieval theories of cultural movement (e.g. translatio imperii et studii, spoliation, etc.) enable us to explain the transmission of literary forms?

Format

The symposium will meet over three days, with each day including 3 panels with three speakers. Papers will last 20 minutes and be followed by 45 minutes of discussion per panel. Since the substantial discussion following the papers is as important as the papers themselves, papers will not be allowed to overrun. Each session will have a respondent/moderator who will read papers in advance of the session and launch the discussion of their session through a short reflective invitation. For this reason, we ask that all papers be given in English. Speakers are asked to frame their research in ways which are simultaneously sophisticated and inviting of exchange with colleagues working across the literatures of medieval Europe (including Byzantium, and Islamic Spain and Sicily) and its neighbours. We welcome proposal for individual papers and for panels.

There will be a modest amount of preparatory theoretical reading in advance of the symposium.

Publication

We anticipate publishing extended versions of a selection of papers from the workshop in a special issue of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures.

Venue

The symposium will take place in the Danish Institute at Athens, conveniently located in the Plaka. There are many tavernas, cafes and restaurants nearby.

Cost

There will be no charge to attend the symposium. There will be a charge to cover the cost of the symposium dinner. Delegates are responsible for covering the cost of their travel and accommodation. A small number of bursaries will be available for PhD students and early career scholars, for further information contact Kristin Bourassa (kristin@sdu.dk).

Abstracts

Please send short abstracts (250 words) and a brief CV (1/2 page) to George Younge (george.younge@york.ac.uk) by 1st March 2019. Panel proposals should include overview (100 words) and abstracts and CVs (as above) for all papers.

DOWNLOAD THE CALL FOR PAPERS AS A PDF

Emeritaatsviering Thom Mertens 20 december 2018, Antwerpen

De Faculteit Letteren & Wijsbegeerte van de Universiteit Antwerpen en het Ruusbroecgenootschap hebben het genoegen u uit te nodigen voor de feestelijke viering ter gelegenheid van het emeritaat van professor Thom Mertens.

De viering vindt plaats op donderdag 20 december 2018 om 16 uur in het Hof van Liere, Frederik de Tassiszaal, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerpen. Omstreeks 17.30 uur heffen we samen met Thom het glas.

Gelieve uw aanwezigheid te bevestigen voor 10 december 2018 via het inschrijfformulier:

https://www. ua ntwerpen.be/n l/facu lteiten/facu lteit-lette ren-en-wijsbegeerte/n ieuws-en-activiteiten/emeritaten/emeritaatsviering-thom-mertens/inschrijven

(Het aantal plaatsen is beperkt. Om zeker te zijn van een plaats raden we u aan snel in te schrijven).

De uitnodiging kan hier gedownload worden.

CfP “Freedom of speech in the medieval and early modern society” (UGent 17–18 May 2019)

This interuniversity workshop hosted by Ghent University is the first in an alternating series of three on ‘freedom of speech’ in late medieval and early modern Europe. By drawing together research on several European countries in the period 1300-1700, the series will reveal various perspectives on premodern free speech. Freedom of speech, i.e. ‘the right to express beliefs and ideas without unwarranted government restriction’, was by no means a fundamental right in the late medieval and early modern period. Yet research has shown that there were several opportunities for the expression of critical opinion towards power holders and that this practice was often widespread. These could be uttered verbally, through the spoken or written word, but also through other sign systems and media, ranging from the sound of musical instruments to heraldic languages. The objective of this workshop is to connect the different segments of research and thereby create a better overall understanding of pre-modern free speech.

We are accepting proposals from a variety of disciplinary angles for 30-minute papers on
• Pre-modern ideas about ‘freedom of speech’
• Juridical practices on free speech and subversive verbal utterances
• Political narratives and lyric
• Non-verbal media of ‘free-speech’ (visual, multimedia, sound…)
• …
Applicants are strongly encouraged to present papers in English. French papers will be accepted as well, if the powerpoint presentation is in English. Please send an abstract of 200 words to
minne.deboodt@kuleuven.be or linde.nuyts@ugent.be by the 10th of january 2019. Applicants will be notified by the 10th of february.

See the website http://www.freedomofspeech.ugent.be/

Freedom of speech in medieval and early modern society. Media, power, politics, and gender (1300-1700): Ghent, 17th-18th May 2019

Organization: Jan Dumolyn & Linde Nuyts (Ghent University), Jelle Haemers & Minne De Boodt (University of Leuven), Martine Veldhuizen (Utrecht University)

This workshop is the first in a series of three on ‘freedom of speech’ in late medieval and early modern Europe. Drawing together research from several European countries in the period 1300-1700, the series will reveal various perspectives on pre-modern free speech. Although freedom of speech, ‘the right to express beliefs and ideas without unwarranted government restriction’, was by no means a fundamental right in the late middle ages and early modern period, expressions of critical opinions towards power were always possible and often widespread. They could be uttered verbally, through the spoken or written word, but also through other sign systems and media, ranging from the sound of musical instruments to heraldic languages.

The Ghent workshop will study evidence from literary and prescriptive sources describing the ideals of free speech, and political-historical evidence of cases in which men and women wrote down and orally uttered their opinions within the context of medieval and early modern society. In Europe, urban cultures of ‘subversive speech’ existed from the late middle ages onwards. Cities offered contenders public space in which they could utter conflicting opinions in many different ways. Singers travelled through the countryside to spread news. Public poetry, songs, petitions and the like were popular media to confront ruling elites with contentious thought, but so were bells, musical instruments and visual signs. This workshop invites speakers to present their research into such media and the contents of publicly uttered speech. Case studies about the use of both written and oral, as well as visual media, and their interconnectedness, during the fourteenth until the seventeenth centuries are very welcome.

 

The following questions will be addressed:

  • Which media were used by citizens to express their discontent? What determined the choice of a certain medium?
  • What kind of messages were spread? Were they subversive or did they legitimize power?
  • Were contenders successful in spreading their message? How was the reception and circulation of these messages? How did the urban elite and the authorities react to the utterance of subversive thought?
  • In what way was freedom of speech related to the social class and gender of speakers and listeners?
  • Can a ‘European’ pattern be distinguished? Do we see a trend in the use of media in periods with fundamental political or religious change (such as the 14th or the 16th centuries)?

Workshop “Nieuwe perspectieven op ambachten binnen de stedelijke ruimte” (30 november 2018, Aalst)

De onderzoeksalliantie “Stadsgeschiedenis en Stadsarcheologie” van de UGent en de VUB organiseert op vrijdag 30 november een workshop “Nieuwe perspectieven op ambachten binnen de stedelijke ruimte”. Luc Geeroms, conservater van ’t Gasthuys – Stedelijk Museum Aalst, is onze gastheer. Na de voorstelling van recent stadshistorisch en stadsarcheologisch onderzoek naar ambachten, beroepen en vroege industrieën, gaan we met elkaar in gesprek om mogelijke samenwerkingsverbanden met het Erfgoedveld in Aalst te verkennen. Deelname aan de workshop is gratis, mits inschrijving voor 25 november bij heidi.deneweth@vub.be. U mag de uitnodiging ook bezorgen aan collega’s die hier niet rechtstreeks aangeschreven zijn.

Alle informatie leest u in het bijgaande programma.

Programma Mediëvistendag 30 november 2018 (Universiteit Leiden)

P  R  O  G  R  A  M  M  A

24STE Mediëvistendag, Leiden, 30 november 2018

(English version below)

Ochtendsessie. Locatie: Rechtenfaculteit, Kamerlingh Onnesgebouw (Steenschuur 25, in verlengde van Rapenburg), Lorentzzaal

10.00-11.00 Inloop, registratie, koffie/thee

11.00-11.10 Welkomstwoord door Peter Hoppenbrouwers (Universiteit Leiden)

11.10-11.30 Opening door Catrien Santing, directeur van de Onderzoekschool Mediëvistiek

11.30-12.15 Keynote door Hilde de Weerdt (Universiteit Leiden), ‘Nations and Empires in Medieval Chinese History’.

12.15-13.00 Keynote door Peter Hoppenbrouwers (Universiteit Leiden), ‘De mondialisering van de middeleeuwen’.

13.00-14.00 lunch

Middagsessie. Locatie: P.J. Vethgebouw (ingang bij Hortus Botanicus tussen Rapenburg 71 en 73), twee zalen (volg bordjes); facultatief: Bibliotheca Thysiana (Rapenburg 25)

15.00-17.00 twee parallelsessies van 3 of 4 x 30 minuten, met daarin volgende papers

Sessie 1

– Leo Lousberg (Universiteit Utrecht,postdoc), ‘Medieval Musemes: Sung Rhetorical Codes in Barbara Rosenwein’s Emotional Communities?’

-Wannes Verstrepen (KU Leuven), ‘Voorbij de scheiding tussen kerkelijke en wereldlijke bijeenkomsten. De rol en betekenis van concilies en bijeenkomsten in de lange tiende eeuw, West Francia en Lotharingen.’

– Sander Stolk (Universiteit Leiden; PhD researcher), ‘Evoke: A Platform for Historical Thesauri’

– [nog ruimte voor één paper]

Sessie 2

– Joost van den Oever (Radbouduniversiteit Nijmegen; PhD researcher), ‘Project Constantinople (1453 – ca. 1480): Its Providential Reconquest and Envisioned Management.’

– Jonathan Bos (Frysje Akademy/Universiteit Leiden; PhD Researcher), ‘Spatial Rural History: Analysing the Frisian Medieval Power Scape In an Interdisciplinary Perspective’

– Bram Caers (U Leiden; postdoc), ‘Tegendraadse meningen in tijden van censuur: uitingen van orangisme in Mechelen (1586-1621)’

– [nog ruimte voor één paper]

15.30-17.00 uur

Facultatief: gelegenheid voor een bezoek aan de fameuze Bibliotheca Thysiana, waar u wordt ontvangen door een van de curatoren (Paul Hoftijzer en Wim van Anrooij).  Bezoeken beginnen om 15.45 uur, 16.15 uur en (bij voldoende belangstelling) 16.45 uur. U kunt zich aanmelden via een lijst die tijdens de ochtendsessie gereed ligt. Per bezoek zijn maximaal twintig plaatsen beschikbaar.

17.00-18.30 uur slotborrel in de Faculty Club bij het Academiegebouw, Rapenburg 71.

Inschrijven voor de Mediëvistendag kan nog via een e-mail aan het secretariaat van de Onderzoekschool, graag vóór 15 november: ozsmed@rug.nl, o.v.v. ‘Mediëvistendag 2018’. De kosten van deelname bedragen 10 euro (voor koffie/thee, lunch en afsluitende borrel),  vóór 15 november over te maken op bankrekeningnummer NL89 ABNA 04 8871 1827, t.a.v. P.C.M. Hoppenbrouwers [inzake Middeleeuwse Geschiedenis], Doelensteeg 16, 2311 VL Leiden.

Er is nog volop ruimte voor aio’s, buitenpromovendi, postdocs of PI’s van grote onderzoeksprojecten om hun onderzoek(project) te presenteren in een kort paper van ca. 20 minuten, in het Nederlands of in het Engels.  Men kan zich per mail melden bij de organisator: p.c.m.hoppenbrouwers@hum.leidenuniv.nl.

Deelnemende Research MA-studenten kunnen 1 ECTS halen door een kort schriftelijk verslag te schrijven. Opgave via het secretariaat van de Onderzoekschool: ozsmed@rug.nl.

P  R  O  G  R  A  M  M  E

24th Medieval Studies Day, Leiden, 30 November 2018

Morning session. Location: Law Faculty, Kamerlingh Onnes building (Steenschuur 25, continuation of Rapenburg), Lorentzhall

10.00-11.00 Reception, Registration, Coffee/tea

11.00-11.10 Welcoming speech by Peter Hoppenbrouwers (Leiden University)

11.10-11.30 Opening by Catrien Santing, Director of the Dutch Research School for Medieval Studies

11.30-12.15 Keynote by Hilde de Weerdt (Universiteit Leiden), ‘Nations and Empires in Medieval Chinese History’.

12.15-13.00 Keynote by Peter Hoppenbrouwers (Universiteit Leiden), ‘De mondialisering van de middeleeuwen’ [in Dutch].

13.00-14.00 Lunch

Afternoon session. Location: P.J. Veth building (entrance at Hortus Botanicus between Rapenburg 71 en 73), two halls (please, follow signs). Optional: Bibliotheca Thysiana (Rapenburg 25)

15.00-17.00 two parallel sessions of 3 to 4 times 30 minutes each, with the following papers:

Session 1

– Leo Lousberg (Universiteit Utrecht,postdoc), ‘Medieval Musemes: Sung Rhetorical Codes in Barbara Rosenwein’s Emotional Communities?’

-Wannes Verstrepen (KU Leuven), ‘Voorbij de scheiding tussen kerkelijke en wereldlijke bijeenkomsten. De rol en betekenis van concilies en bijeenkomsten in de lange tiende eeuw, West Francia en Lotharingen.’ [in Dutch]

– Sander Stolk (Universiteit Leiden; PhD researcher), ‘Evoke: A Platform for Historical Thesauri’

– [there is room for one other paper]

Session 2

– Joost van den Oever (Radbouduniversiteit Nijmegen; PhD researcher), ‘Project Constantinople (1453 – ca. 1480): Its Providential Reconquest and Envisioned Management.’

– Jonathan Bos (Frysje Akademy/Universiteit Leiden; PhD Researcher), ‘Spatial Rural History: Analysing the Frisian Medieval Power Scape In an Interdisciplinary Perspective’

– Bram Caers (U Leiden; postdoc), ‘Tegendraadse meningen in tijden van censuur: uitingen van orangisme in Mechelen (1586-1621).’ [in Dutch]

– [there is room for one other paper]

15.30-17.00 hrs

Optional: visit to the famous Bibliotheca Thysiana, where you will be taken round by one of the curators (Paul Hoftijzer and Wim van Anrooij).  Visits start at 15.45 hrs, 16.15 hrs, and (with sufficient particiapants) 16.45 hrs. You can sign up for a visit  on a list that will be put ready during the morning session. Per visit there is a maximum of 20 participants.

17.00-18.30 Drinks in the Faculty Club in the Academy building, Rapenburg 71.

Please, register for the day by sending an e-mail to ozsmed@rug.nl, preferably before November 15. There is an attendance fee of 10 euros, which will cover expenses for coffee/tea, lunch and drinks. You are requested to pay the fee before November 15 to the account NL89 ABNA 04 8871 1827, with the reference ‘P.C.M. Hoppenbrouwers [inzake Middeleeuwse Geschiedenis], Doelensteeg 16, 2311 VL Leiden.’

There still is plenty of room for PhD students (also external candidates), postdocs or PI’s of research projects to present their research(project) in a short paper of ca. 20 minutes, either in Dutch or English. Just send the title of your paper by e-mail to the organiser: p.c.m.hoppenbrouwers@hum.leidenuniv.nl.

Participating Research MA students who write a short paper obtain 1 ECTS. Please register via ozsmed@rug.nl.

 

 

Pirennelezing Emily Steiner, 3 december 2018 (Gent)

Naar aanleiding van de opening van het nieuwe academiejaar organiseert de VWM naar goede traditie de Pirennelezing. Dit jaar zal die gegeven worden door Emily Steiner (University of Pennsylvania). De lezing draagt de titel Medieval Encyclopedias and the making of Vernacular Literature, c.1240-1400 (abstract onderaan deze post). Professor Steiner is experte in Middelengelse literatuur en theater. Ze geniet internationale bekendheid als auteur van Documentary Culture and the Making of Medieval English Literature (Cambridge University Press, 2003) and Reading ‘Piers Plowman’  (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

De Pirennelezing vindt plaats op maandag 3 december en gaat van start om 17.30 uur in de Jozef Plateauzaal (Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Gent). Achteraf wordt er een receptie aangeboden op dezelfde locatie. De lezing is gratis. Gelieve te registreren door via het onderstaande formulier uw gegevens in te vullen.

 

Abstract

The medieval encyclopedia is a significant if neglected chapter in our larger narrative about the transmission of knowledge from Latin to the vernaculars. The 1240s-1260s witnessed a surge in the production of Latin encyclopedias, which, over the course of the next two centuries, were translated into every European language and into verse as well as prose. That natural encyclopedias such as Thomas of Cantimpre’s De nature rerum (translated and versified by Jacob van Maerlant), Gautier de Metz’s L’Image du monde, Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s De proprietatibus rerum (translated as Vanden proprieteyten der dinghen), and Le Livre de Sydrac (Het boek van Sidrac), were deemed suitable for high-end copying and illustration for the consumption of royal courts and wealthy laypeople, suggests further that the growth of vernacular literary culture was intertwined with the growth of vernacular information culture, and specifically of lay scientific discourse.  The problem for modern literary scholars is that these texts sit awkwardly at the juncture between literature and information. However, medieval encyclopedias can tell us much about the formation of a body of general knowledge. Likewise, they reveal something about the early development of “popular science” or the bridge between scientific literature as a professional medium and the realms of political, cultural, and moral discourse. Finally, medieval encyclopedias invite us to set aside the distinctions we traditionally make between scientific and literary texts. By embracing the encyclopedia as both inventive literature and as nascent popular science, we will begin to see how it generated vernacular poetry and prose.